Rotwild was created as a showcase to prove the engineering that ADP engineering develops, Rotwild is a leading brand full of innovations and patents in mountain bikes.
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Rotwild electric bicycles
When it comes to mountain bikes, they were the first to adopt the belt drive to a downhill bike in 1996 called RDH P1. Mounted with double suspension, hydraulic braking system with steel discs, electronic shifting, the equivalent of a Shimano Di2 20 years later. On the next P2 model the frame featured the first applications of carbon fiber in downhill frames to reduce weight.
Entering the world of electric bikes, a couple of years ago, ADP engineering (Rotwild) joined forces with BROSE (manufacturer of electric motors for automotive, number 1 in Germany and worldwide, manufacturing for Mercedes, Audi, BMW, Wolkswagen with more than 100 years of experience) to develop an electric motor for ebikes that would revolutionize the market. In 2016, we began to see several brands with BROSE electric systems and with the same integration of motor and battery as Bulls and BH and for this year 2017 the list of manufacturers that mount Bröse has skyrocketed.
Rotwild and Brose evolved the engine to integrate perfectly into the mountain bike frames that Rotwild has been marketing so successfully over the last few years, respecting the overall geometry developed for each of the mountain bike disciplines and achieving an unparalleled weight distribution.
Rotwild develops the Bröse motor, the battery and proposes the solution of integrating it into the geometry as a whole. Rotwild uses 14.5ah batteries instead of the 17.5ah that could fit in the hole, not for taste or to save costs (which as you can see in the components does not fit the brand at all) but because - according to their study - if we exceed the weight in the lowest part of the frame, we unbalance the front wheel concerning the rear wheel, feeling a small imbalance in delicate moments such as steep descents. Rotwild uses 14.5ah IPU (integrated power unit) lithium batteries to optimize weight by distributing the cells evenly.
ADP Engineering and Rotwild received the first international award for innovation and design earlier this year.
Rotwild electrical system
The Bröse mid-engine with 250 watts and 90 Newton meters will continue to be used in all models in the 2021 range. Its main ingredients are aluminum, magnesium, experience, and design/manufacture made in Germany.
The 750Wh lithium batteries from German manufacturer BMZ are still integrated into the down tube of the frame, maintaining the optimal weight distribution, delivering enough range to cover up to 145km on the flat with the lowest level of assistance.
For 2021 Rotwild and Bröse have further fine-tuned the engine software, allocating more torque at low speed and applying smoother power delivery at all assistance levels.
Where other engines are developed with an eye on price, Brose 2.0 is designed and manufactured to meet a high standard of quality regardless of cost, incorporating precision engineered precision helical epicyclic gears, which are much more expensive to manufacture, but offer spectacular performance with minimal wear over commonly used spur gear profiles, which are cheaper but have a shorter service life.
In simple terms the power transfer from the drive gear to the motor is transferred through one or two teeth depending on the case, with helical gears the power is transferred through three teeth which are connected at the same time, resulting in less wear, less noise, less friction, and a smaller and lighter drive unit.
Apart from the advantages of engine integration, size, low weight, and reliability, Rotwild and Brose become market leaders in terms of power and torque thrust. The sensor developed by Brose is unique in today's market as it measures the force exerted by the rider on the pedal no less than 420 times per second, the assistance performance is smooth, vibration-free, and one of the few on the market alongside the Yamaha engine to offer two front chainrings for a wider speed range.
Production began in July 2014 and by August of that year, the Rotwild / Brose test team had covered 110,000 km over complex alpine trails.
Brose Drive Technology is a division of the Brose Group, one of the most innovative and successful suppliers to the international automotive industry, employing some 22,000 employees - 2,500 of the engineers - at 57 locations in 23 countries worldwide. Its annual turnover exceeds €5 billion. Last year Brose produced 100 million electric motors. There is no doubt that they know what they are doing.
Decades of experience specializing in mechatronic engineering for the automotive sector mean they are perfectly qualified to produce this innovative e-bike drive. The development and production of the Brose motor take place entirely at their Berlin motor plant, where a team of engineers design, build and test the system to build an electric bike that borders on excellence.
The Rotwild is the lightest bike, 15% lighter than its closest rival.
But how they have achieved this feat. The secret lies in the engineering that develops them and the use of the most modern production technology materials.
Assembled from carbon, an alloy known for its strength and light-weight, significantly improving bending strength and providing greater traction.
Rotwild engineering design
Rotwild bases its development work on the virtual tools it has at its disposal and on various readings to extract data and better understanding how processes work. They are continually defining the specific requirements for the entire Rotwild product range in conjunction with their partners in the development of drawings, materials, and manufacturing processes from inception to maturity in the testing phase. At the same time with each new project launch, they stipulate the specific characteristics of each innovation to integrate them into the development concept that they maintain in the design of each product. The result speaks for itself, a unique and balanced end product that brings together all the advances that have evolved.
The demands placed on a top-quality carbon bicycle frame are many and varied, the frame must be as light as possible while offering maximum stiffness with a distinctive design to the eye and maintaining the unique character of the tubes that maintain the necessary damping properties to ensure a long service life.
The first Rotwild 6066 T6 Aluminum Frames
These frames made of the special alloy allowed them to build extremely light and durable aluminum frames. This type of alloy contains a greater number of alloy components, which provide better properties in terms of strength and material fatigue.
Considering the relationship between density and fatigue strength, the benefits of this type of aluminum became very apparent in the first models with electric system, increasing the elasticity limit of the material, very important to preserve the welds in perfect condition, also increasing the resistance to shocks and fractures, which is a particularly great advantage on double suspension bikes when the latter is higher than 140mm due to the strong stresses that act on each impact.
The tubes for Rotwild bicycle frames are made from modern aluminum and maintained to the highest quality, produced in a process known as hydroforming, allowing the tubes to be individually shaped and produced with a high level of process reliability. To carry out the process the tube is pressurized to 4000 Bars by filling it with a mixed emulsion of air and oil, the high internal pressure is responsible for forming the tube section allowing much more complex geometries to be formed, thus enabling tube shapes and thicknesses to be optimally adapted to the loading conditions of the frame.
The advantage of the forging process that Rotwild implements in its frames are that the thin metal structure can be selectively altered, this is based on a prolonged cooling that releases the additional material properties that each component must exhibit. As a result of the process, the forged parts exhibit much higher strength and therefore offer a higher safety factor.
Carbon Monocoque frames with HM fibers, optimized layout, and Rotwild carbon fiber nexus
Rotwild carbon frames are mainly produced from what is known as high tenacity (HT) fibers. The modular structure of the frame allows the use of other types of carbon fiber (HM high modulus or HST high wear and toughness) in addition to HT fibers, making it possible to address special problems such as stiffness or to selectively improve the mechanical behavior of the structure in response to damage or impact.
The carbon parts of semi-finished fiber frames in which the individual carbon fibers, only 0.007 mm thick, have been pre-impregnated with epoxy resin. The quality of this pre-impregnation is crucial for the subsequent definition of the characteristics of the carbon frame. Only if you achieve a constant distribution and a correct volume ratio of fiber and resin will it be possible to achieve an ideal power-to-weight ratio for the frame. If for example, to save weight, the resin content is reduced in the pre-preg or during the process, it may mean that the fibers are no longer ideally embedded in the resin and are not able to transmit the particular forces under compressive load.
No other material offers as many possibilities as carbon, to extract its performance characteristics, Rotwild has committed vast resources to extensive research, resulting in a new manufacturing method called Modular Monocoque Technology (MMT).
ROTWILD's new MMT production technology allows for improved conversion of the elaborate construction, manufacturing and quality control requirements to which carbon frames are subjected, making it possible to precisely match the mechanical characteristics that a Rotwild frame houses, such as stiffness, elasticity and high absorption capacity, thus solving the specific problems of the material itself, such as sensitivity to impact, resulting in carbon frames of the highest quality and unique performance.
Rotwild Integrated Power Unit (IPU)
Rotwild's integrated power unit, or IPU, consists of a Brose motor and a lithium battery they created themselves. The engineering goal was to integrate the two most important elements in an electric bike into the development while retaining the dynamic handling characteristics, geometry and kinematics, which mechanical bikes - which Rotwild has been improving for years - retain.
The IPU system, which has been implemented by other brands since 2016, is patented by Rotwild at the European Patent Office.
The central electric motor developed by Rotwild in cooperation with the German automotive supplier BROSE forms the basis of the IPU. In terms of electrical engineering, it is a "brushless internal rotor" characterized by a compact design combined with enormous efficiency. The motor transmits hte power in two stages in a ratio of 01:27. This means that the electric motor always rotates in its optimum speed window, guaranteeing maximum efficiency.
Another unique feature of the brose drive unit is the use of two freewheel mechanisms inside it, something that becomes important on electric bikes when having a set cut-off speed of 25km/h. With the help of this second freewheel mechanism, the electric motor is completely disconnected once 25 km/hour is exceeded so that we can continue pedaling with our power without loss of speed.
Shimano EP8-Rotwild engine
The new Shimano EP8 motor, integrated into all the Aggressive Series line, looks set to revolutionize the bike with its unconventional approach, with super-lightweight bike models, 375wh batteries and an all-terrain, all-terrain mentality.
Starting with the 2022 collection, Rotwild completes the successful Aggressive Series range with 735wh battery.
The 375wh battery has been designed and developed by Rotwild in close cooperation with a renowned German manufacturer BMZ. It consists of four basic elements:
The 40 lithium-ion cells.
BMS or battery management system.
Integrated charging socket.
Housing that encloses and protects the entire battery pack.
The high-density lithium-ion cells are divided into cell packs. Each cell delivers 3.7 volts in a working range of 3.7 to 4.2 volts and a capacity of 3,500 milliamps. The main feature of this li-ion cell is its chemical structure inside, which has been specially designed for automotive, bicycle and electric vehicle applications.
The IPU developed by the engineering behind Rotwild has been designed in such a way that it can be used on any bike frame without any restrictions on geometry, kinematics or compatibility, i.e. we find it on a downhill, CrossCountry, All mountain, Enduro, Tour, Trekking Rotwild.. to this end the housing that protects the Bröse motor becomes an integral part of the rest of the frame, firmly bolted to the battery and the down tube of the frame, becoming, in turn, a support element within the frame structure.
Thanks to its compact design, it allows for short chainstay lengths and suitable positions at the rear suspension pivot points, which are so important on a full-suspension frame.
Modern CAX systems, based on computer-aided technologies, are the basis of the developments that RotWild produces and implements in its products. They are instrumental in the development of the original idea and the initial project, in the optimization and calculation of the force up to the production stage. In this way, they can identify errors and rectify them with ease, even during the virtual mold creation and development process which is accelerated by the use of these systems, obtaining first prototypes with a very high level of maturity that allows rotwild to work more accurately, quickly and efficiently.
Computer-aided design CAD systems for three-dimensional product modeling involve the creation of a virtual three-dimensional mold of each component which contains all the actual geometrical and physical properties such as weight, volume, etc. and which forms the basis for all subsequent development steps. Thanks to computer-aided design, the models can be adapted to each other, avoiding unwanted clashes and failures in the subsequent stages of fitting and integration of the individual components.
CAE systems are basic to be able to perform strength calculations and load simulations on the virtual model on the various computers. The loading conditions and limitations of the real data measurements are transferred to the product, thus being able to detect the magnitude and directions of material stresses such as tensile, compressive, bending or torsional stresses occurring in each component under the corresponding loading conditions. The level of stresses acting provides valuable information on the degree to which materials perform to their maximum capacity, whether additional material savings are possible or whether the initial design must be replaced to achieve material stresses within an allowable range. Only through the use of these implementation systems is such optimization possible in order to obtain an optimal ratio between stiffness and durability.
MBS, or multi-body simulation, is a numerical simulation method that can be included in the category of CAE systems. MBS involves the simulation of the various sequences of movements of the various components that are connected. Rotwild uses this procedure in particular for the kinematic design of the rear swingarm.
Thanks to the use of Rotwild's own ADP engineering software, they to calculate the speed, acceleration and various forces acting on the individual elements of the rear suspension. By superimposing the graphs relating to the kinematics* of the rear suspension with the parameters relevant to the air spring they can to tune the two systems perfectly to each other.
Measurement of actual data
By taking actual data in operation, Rotwild can determine the maximum loads acting on the bike during use. In the process, the forces and moments working on the bikes are recorded qualitatively and quantitatively over a wide range of different riding conditions. The data is recorded using strain gauges and acceleration sensors located on the exposed parts of the frame.
In 1998, they built their first test model in collaboration with the University of Siegen. In 2002, their second trial model was developed in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute, to further verify and refine the actual data recorded in the first step. In total, they have identified 32 important and relevant measuring points and equipped them with the appropriate sensors to collect the necessary amount of data to maintain their constant evolution and the high level of development that they have been demonstrating for more than 20 years, resulting in engineering masterpieces that anyone lucky enough to be able to enjoy.
Kinematics is the part of mechanics that studies movement in its conditions of space and time, without taking into account the causes that produce it.
The bearings that Rotwild uses to assemble its bicycles are EIR ball bearings produced exclusively for Rotwild and which differ from the usual bearings enormously. This refurbishment aims is to further extend the service life of the bearings and reduce material fatigue to avoid future problems.
EIR bearings are used in five very different locations.
The special feature of EIR bearings is the design of the internal spacer, which is much wider than a conventional bearing allowing more support for the bearing system and avoiding small relative movements between the individual parts.
The advantage of EIR technology is that they are known as full complement ball bearings, i.e. the bearing is filled with the maximum number of balls. In other words, a conventional bearing of the same size (15x28x9) can have a maximum of 9 balls for the 18 balls in an EIR bearing.
The advantage of having a greater number of balls is to give the bearing greater static load capacity, so that the EIR bearings have no difficulty in withstanding the forces to which they are subjected during use, greatly reducing wear and increasing the durability of the bearing as a whole.
EIR ball bearings use a wear-resistant stainless-steel alloy and are also sealed with a special seal on both sides to keep dirt and water out and to preserve the grease required for the bearing to work properly and perfectly lubricated, resulting in top quality, maintenance-free bearings.
Bottom Bracket Systems
Rotwild uses the BB92 bottom bracket system also known as Shimano Press Fit which ensures better pedaling efficiency due to increased stiffness in the bottom bracket segment. This type of bottom bracket is suitable for hydro-formed aluminum frames and carbon frames. In the case of carbon frames, it allows the cemented aluminum inserts to be removed from the bottom bracket shell, the bearings are embedded directly into the carbon bottom bracket shell. In terms of design the 92mm bottom bracket width improves the bending and torsional strength of the assembly.
Thanks to the 148 hubs on the rear wheel and 110 on the front wheel, Rotwild can significantly improve the stiffness of 29" and 27.5" wheels.
The 148mm hub creates clearance in the tire and allows the use of wider plus tires. It also reduces off-line chain travel.
The 110mm hub on the front wheel also generates a wider clearance resulting in a clear improvement in wheel stiffness.
MRC Modular Riding Concept
The new MRC concept that the Rotwild engineers implement in their collection, year after year, offers riders many options to adapt the dynamic properties of the frame to their individual preferences. For this purpose, the different requirements in different applications are subjected to rigorous analysis in terms of suspension travel and geometry. During data collection, they identified two important points in the frame that form the basis of the innovative MRC frame concept: chainstay length and head tube angle.
MDI Multiple DropOut Inlay
Or 3D rear dropouts that allow the use of wheels with different axles and freedom of movement to suit the individual needs of each rider. To ensure the quality and durability of the material, they are anodized, which is an electrolytic passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide layer on the surface of metal parts.
With the MDI or multiple dropout inlay, rotwild has introduced a system that allows different axle standards and gear ratios (Shimano or SRAM) to be installed by simply changing the position with one simple movement.
The third generation of MDI (from frame model R.X1 and R.X+) makes it possible to set a horizontal position for the length of the rear chainstays, taking into account the wheel size, it is possible to select very short chainstay lengths of 422.5 mm and longer ones of 435mm which changes the riding feel considerable.
The length adjustment thanks to the MDI is carried out purely horizontally, which means that the basic geometrical dimensions such as bottom bracket height, seat post and head tube angle remain unaffected.
The different wheel sizes 27.5" and 27+ can also be integrated without having to carry out serious modifications to the geometries.
With a shorter chainstay length of 422.5mm, it makes the bike more maneuverable, sportier and with an agile and dynamic cornering response, we can lift the front wheel more easily to negotiate certain obstacles. The 422.5mm chainstay length with 140mm of suspension travel and tires up to 2.4" wide is today's benchmark for a good all-mountain bike.
With the medium chainstay length, but being longer, at 435mm, it provides greater stability when riding, as well as on fast descents and gives us greater climbing ability on steep terrain, ensuring that the front wheel maintains contact with the ground for as long as possible, while at the same time, this chain stay length allows tires up to 3.0" wide, the equivalent of 27.5 Plus to be mounted.
Axle position adjusted to the pilot
With the help of the dropouts and the associated chainstay lengths, it is possible to adjust the frame to the rider's height, to optimize the theoretical center of gravity distribution, a chainstay length of 425mm is recommended for the L and Xl size frames, however, the shorter configuration remains an option for the two large sizes as well.
MHS - Modular Headset
or steered tube angle adjustment, fully developed by ROTWILD in combination with the X-frame offering different configuration options to adapt the frame to each individual.
The steering is semi-integrated, the bearings are integrated into the aluminum tubes, which are pressed into the head tube, so it is possible to change the configuration at any time.
The ball bearings are fully sealed, made of stainless steel and protected against the ingress of dirt by three additional external seals.
Delivered ex-factory in standard configuration. For suspension forks 34mm thick and 140mm travel equals a steered tube angle of 67 degrees, as an option the upper bearing housing can be replaced with a special 1.5 degree bearing, which reduces the steered tube angle to 65.6 degrees or increases it to 68.5°.
By changing the head tube angle, we achieve a strong change in the dynamic riding properties and geometry structure, changing bottom bracket height, reach, seat post angle and wheelbase.
With the steering tube angle in the 65.5° position we increase the wheelbase, the steering behavior becomes less agile and because the front wheel comes into contact with obstacles earlier due to its position, the flip-over feeling decreases when going downhill or stepping down steep rocks.
With the steering tube angle at the 68.5° position, we get a steeper steering angle matched with better handling and more agile steering movements, which translates into a livelier and lighter ride.